Veel gaatjes in Turkse en Marokkaanse kindergebitten

tanden-en-voeding-bij-kinderen

Het is slecht gesteld met de tanden van jonge Rotterdamse kinderen. Dat blijkt uit de gebitsfoto’s van ruim 4.000 zesjarigen. Hun afkomst maakt een groot verschil: Surinaams-Hindoestaanse kinderen hebben twee keer vaker meer dan drie gaatjes in hun gebit dan hun leeftijdsgenootjes van Nederlandse afkomst. Voor Turkse en Marokkaanse kinderen loopt dit zelfs op tot vijf keer vaker. Het opleidingsniveau, voedingstoestand en inkomen van de ouders verklaren een deel van het probleem.

Het onderzoek naar de mondgezondheid is onderdeel van Generation R. Dit is een grootschalige bevolkingsstudie naar de groei, ontwikkeling en gezondheid van kinderen in Rotterdam. De kinderen worden vanaf de vroege zwangerschap tot hun jongvolwassenheid gevolgd.

“ We hebben van zeven etnische groepen in Rotterdam in kaart gebracht hoe het gesteld is met de mondgezondheid, op basis van gebitsfoto’s van meer dan 4.000 kinderen.”

Daaruit bleek dat meer dan twintig procent van de kinderen van Nederlandse afkomst al op zesjarige leeftijd één of meerdere gaatjes had. “Dit zagen we anderhalf keer vaker onder Surinaams-Hindoestaanse kinderen en drie keer vaker onder Turkse en Marokkaanse kinderen,” aldus Van der Tas. Ook van de andere onderzochte groepen, de kinderen van Surinaams-Creeolse en Kaapverdiaanse afkomst had een op de drie kinderen een slechter gebit dan de Nederlandse kinderen.

“De resultaten werden schrijnender naarmate we de kinderen verder onderverdeelden op basis van de mate van cariës,”  voegt prof. dr. Eppo Wolvius toe. Surinaams-Hindoestaanse kinderen bleken twee keer vaker dan hun Nederlandse leeftijdsgenootjes meer dan drie gaatjes te hebben. Onder Turkse en Marokkaanse kinderen zagen Wolvius en Van der Tas zelfs vijf keer vaker meer dan drie gaatjes in hun gebit. Het is bekend dat het opleidingsniveau van de moeder en het inkomen van de ouders meespelen bij de gezondheid van kinderen. Na correctie voor deze sociale factoren bleven de grote etnische verschillen bestaan. Wolvius: “We vermoeden dat het voedingspatroon met vaak veel zoetigheid een rol speelt, vooral bij Turkse en Marokkaanse kinderen”

Kinderen met een allochtone achtergrond vormen een kwetsbare bevolkingsgroep. Zij hebben over het algemeen een minder gezonde start van het leven. Om beter in te kunnen spelen op de mondzorg die deze kinderen nodig hebben en bovenal om gebitsproblemen te voorkomen, is het van belang om te weten waardoor zij een hoger risico op cariës hebben.

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