Personen die langdurig een veganistisch voedingspatroon volgen hebben tekorten aan bepaalde micronutriënten

 

Wat is een Veganist?
Veganisten eten helemaal geen dierlijke producten, dus ook geen melk of eieren. Zij gebruiken verder geen materialen afkomstig van dieren, zoals leer.

Vlees bevat belangrijke voedingsstoffen. Deze kun je ook uit andere producten halen. Het gaat om:
• Eiwitten voor de bouw van lichaamscellen.
• IJzer voor het transport van zuurstof door je bloed.
• Vitamine B1 voor de verbranding van koolhydraten en een goede werking van het hart en zenuwstelsel.
• Vitamine B12 voor de aanmaak van rode bloedlichamen en een goede werking van het zenuwstelsel.

 

Aan de Finse studie namen 22 veganisten deel die gedurende reeds acht jaar een veganistisch voedingspatroon volgden. Bij de deelnemers werd gedurende drie dagen informatie verzameld over hun voeding en het gebruik van voedingssupplementen. Tevens werden in het bloed en de urine biomarkers voor micronutriënten gemeten en vergeleken met een controlegroep van negentien niet-veganisten.

Alle veganisten volgden strikt een veganistisch eetpatroon. De inname van vitamine B12 en D vanuit de voeding was significant lager bij de veganisten dan bij de niet-veganisten. Veganisten hadden bovendien significant lagere bloedconcentraties van vitamine D, jodium en selenium. In de veganistengroep had 24% een vitamine D-tekort in vergelijking met 6% in de controlegroep. De veganisten hadden een ander vetprofiel: hogere concentraties van meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren en lagere concentraties van verzadigd vet. De concentraties van polyfenolen afkomstig van soja (genisteïne en daidzeïne) waren significant hoger dan bij de niet-veganisten. De vitamine B12-status van de veganisten was acceptabel. Dit was vermoedelijk een gevolg van het gebruik van voedingssupplementen. De jodiumconcentratie in de urine was in beide groepen verlaagd.

Veganisten hebben een verhoogde kans op tekorten aan bepaalde micronutriënten zoals vitamine B12, D, jodium en selenium.

Advies: Het gebruik van voedingssupplementen is zeker aan te bevelen bij een veganistisch eetpatroon.

Bron: Elorinne AL, Alfthan G, [..], Laakso J. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians. PLoS One 2016; 11(2):e0148235

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